movie quotes are solid, albeit dreary and leaves you feeling very
unsettled. This pandemic multi-scened docu-drama keeps you on the edge
of your seat from the start, cleverly using our insecurities and
pathological fear of contamination very effectively. It provides us
with a very impressive array of stars, some who play brief but
significant roles. Although the use of so many stars may seem like a
strength it actually felt like the main weakness of this movie, as with
so many primary characters some story lines just didn't get fully
played out satisfactorily. All in all this is a realistic adult movie
that focuses on stark, somber scenarios that will no doubt infect your
nerves. One word of warning; if you have any tendency towards
hypochondria then stay far clear of this movie!
by: Steven Soderbergh
Scott Z. Burns Starring: Gwyneth Paltrow -
Matt Damon - Mitch Emhoff
Laurence Fishburne - Dr. Ellis Cheever
John Hawkes - Roger
Jude Law - Alan Krumwiede
Marion Cotillard - Dr. Leonora Orantes
Kate Winslet - Dr. Erin Mears
Jennifer Ehle - Dr. Ally Hextall
Demetri Martin - Dr. David Eisenberg
Elliott Gould - Dr. Ian Sussman Monique Gabriela Curnen
- Lorraine Vasquez Griffin Kane
- Clark Morrow Stef Tovar -
Dr. Arrington Grace Rex -
Carrie Anne Armin Rohde
- Damian Leopold Larry Clarke
- Dave Anna Jacoby-Heron
- Jory Emhoff
[first lines; Day 2 - at
the airport lounge Beth gets a call on her cell phone] Beth Emhoff:
Hey. John Neal:[voice] Yeah, John
Neal here. You just had sex with me in a hotel and left without saying
goodbye. Beth Emhoff: Yeah,
I ended up being delayed. So, sorry. I was panicking. John Neal:[voice] Well, if I
don't get to see you again, I just wanted to say it was nice to see you
again. Beth Emhoff: Yeah,
it was nice to see you too. John Neal:[voice] Um...and
listen, use that other email I gave you. Because that's the only secure
one, okay? Beth Emhoff: Okay.
[Beth coughs] John Neal:[voice] You
alright? Beth Emhoff: Yeah,
I'm just...I'm just jet lagged and tired. John Neal:[voice] Well, you
should go home and get some rest. Hong Kong is a long way. [Beth hears her flight
being called] Beth Emhoff: Oh,
wait. John Neal:[voice] Is that
you? Beth Emhoff: Yep,
that's me. They're calling my flight. John Neal:[voice] Alright.
Well look, I'm really glad you called. Beth Emhoff: Thanks.
doc. I know you're busy, I uh...you got a second? Dr. Ellis Cheever:
Sure. Roger: I
got a medical question. Uh...my kids have been...uh, having problems at
school. Attention deficit thing. Dr. Ellis Cheever: A-D-H-D? Roger: Yeah. Dr. Ellis Cheever: He
been diagnosed yet? Roger: That's
the thing, they want him to see someone and I was wondering if you
could take look? Dr. Ellis Cheever: I'm
not really that kind of doctor, Richard. Roger: Oh,
I didn't know. I just maybe... Dr. Ellis Cheever: Maybe
I can refer someone. Roger: Yeah? Dr. Ellis Cheever: Yeah.
It's treatable. Roger: Okay. Dr. Ellis Cheever: We'll
find someone, have him take a look at him. It shouldn't be a problem. Roger: Okay. Dr. Ellis Cheever: Alright? Roger: Yep.
Thanks, doc. Dr. Ellis Cheever: You're
[looking at a footage
captured on camera phone of a man in Tokyo convulsing to death in a bus] Lorraine Vasquez:
Why doesn't anybody help him? Is he okay? Alan Krumwiede:
Read the posts. Some say it was staged, an art project. Some say the
authorities wouldn't do an autopsy. Covered it up. Lorraine Vasquez: Covered
what up? Alan Krumwiede: They
don't know. Maybe Minamata disease, you know, from mercury in the fish.
They've been outbreaks in the past. Fishing industries suppresses it,
industrial disease. Lorraine Vasquez: Yeah,
but it's just one man. We don't even know... Alan Krumwiede: Just
one man on video. One who has the foresight to die in front of a
camera. The ones we don't see worry me. Fish is shipped all over the
world from there. Now, how many people read your paper over a plate of
sushi everyday? Lorraine Vasquez: Yeah,
Alan, we have almost no freelance budget anymore. And after
H-one ends up... Alan Krumwiede: You
wait a few days. This will be tweeted, YouTubed all over the
Lorraine Vasquez: I'll
show it to Hobart. He...he does our health stuff. Alan Krumwiede: You're
gonna give him my story? You're gonna give him my story, aren't you? Lorraine Vasquez: What?
No. Alan, I'm trying to help you. It's just one man on a bus. Alan Krumwiede: I
taped this meeting. Lorraine Vasquez: We
need more information than that. Alan Krumwiede: This
story runs in The Chronicle, I will sue your ass! Lorraine Vasquez: Great,
okay! Bye, Alan. Don't call me anymore. [Alan gets up to leave] Alan Krumwiede: Freak
media is dying, Lorraine. It's dying. I'll save you a seat on the bus!
[Mitch comes to collect
his step son who has become ill from school] School Nurse:
He said he was feeling very warm in Miss Jacobs class. I took his
temperature again since I called. It's just a touch over a hundred. Mitch Emhoff:
Okay. Well, first his mom and now the mighty Clark. [Clark, looking ill,
coughs] Mitch Emhoff: Alright.
Lets go get some soup for you and mom. [Mitch and Clark turn to
leave] School Nurse: Hope
you feel better, Clark. Okay? Clark Morrow:
Okay. Thank you. Mitch Emhoff: Good
boy. We're gonna beat this thing down by turkey day.
[Day 4 - a very ill
looking Beth is at home staring at her coffee cup] Mitch Emhoff: And
Jory's going straight from the band trip to her mom's place. And my job
interview got pushed to next week. I'm not really sure what that means.
Beth tries to pick up her coffee cup but she is too weak and drops the
cup Beth Emhoff: My
hand! Mitch Emhoff: Sit
down! Sit down! Sit down! Watch your feet. Come on. [he walks her out of the
kitchen counter chairs] Mitch Emhoff: Come
on. Come on. What happened to you? You take too much of that blue stuff? [suddenly Beth collapses
to the floor and starts having a seizure] Mitch Emhoff: Honey!
Honey! Beth! Beth! Hey! Hey! Honey! Honey! Beth! Jesus! Jesus!
Sweetheart? Sweetheart? Beth! [Clark comes through the
kitchen doorway] Clark Morrow: Mom? Mitch Emhoff: No!
No! No! Uh...stay there, Clark. No! No! Just go...go up to your room,
honey. [Mitch panicking as
Beth's seizure doesn't stop and he rushes to make a 911 call]
[at the hospital] ER Nurse #1:
Does she have a history of seizures? Mitch Emhoff: No!
No! No! ER Nurse #1: Allergies?
Other medical problems? Mitch Emhoff: Uh...she's...I
think she's allergic to penicillin. Dr. Arrington:
Did she throw up recently? Hit her head in the shower? Mitch Emhoff: No!
No! She came back from a trip and she...she was... Dr. Arrington: What
about drugs? M-D-M-A? Ecstasy? Mitch Emhoff: No,
we don't do that. [suddenly Beth has
another seizure] Dr. Arrington: Okay,
let's get some help! Mitch Emhoff: Beth!
Beth! ER Nurse #1: You
have to go. You have to leave.
[the ER doctor that was
helping Beth tries to tell a shocked Mitch that Beth died] Dr. Arrington: So,
uh...despite all our efforts, she failed to respond. Mitch Emhoff: Okay. Dr. Arrington: And
her heart stopped. Mitch Emhoff: Okay. Dr. Arrington: And
unfortunately she did die. Mitch Emhoff: Right.
Dr. Arrington: I'm
sorry, Mr. Emhoff. Social Worker:
I know this is hard to accept. Mitch Emhoff: Okay.
So, can I go talk to her? Dr. Arrington: Mr.
Emhoff, I'm sorry, you're wife is dead. Mitch Emhoff: What
do you mean? I just...I just saw her. We...we were just at home. Dr. Arrington: Is
there somebody that we can call? Someone who you think should be here
[after Mitch has just
been told Beth has died] Mitch Emhoff: We
had dinner, we had pizza. She...she...she said she was jet lagged. Dr. Arrington: You...you
mentioned that she was away, Hong Kong? We checked the latest
bulletins, the only things there were measles and H1N1, and this was
not that. Mitch Emhoff: Then
what was it? Dr. Arrington: We
don't always know. Some people get a disease and live, some get sicker
and die. Now, we're gonna have to notify a medical examiner and they
may request an autopsy. Or if you wish, we can order one. But I can't
guarantee it's gonna tell you anything more than I can. My best guess
is this was either meningitis or encephalitis and with encephalitis
we're in the dark a lot of the time. Now, if it was summer, I might say
uh...a bug bite, West Nile, herpes can cause encephalitis. Mitch Emhoff: She
didn't have herpes! What are you talking about? What happened to her? [Arrington doesn't know
what to say] Mitch Emhoff: What
happened to her?! Dr. Arrington: Okay.
Okay. Mr. Emhoff, there are grief counselors who are very helpful with
this sort of passing. Okay? You might find some resolution there. Now,
I am sorry.
[Day 5 - at the World
Health Organization in Switzerland] WHO Official:
How are we defining containment? Damian Leopold:
They're using the same protocol as established for SARS. They're
quarantining the complex and screening the symptoms. Dr. Leonora Orantes:
Kowloon is the most densely populated area in the world and Hong Kong
is a harbor. It's going to spread. Damian Leopold: Hong
Kong is sending us blood samples. Dr. Leonora Orantes: We're
also looking at samples from London. Two clusters, one at a hotel the
other a health club. Five dead, encephalitis And there's the man on the
bus in Tokyo, three dead in that cluster. WHO Official: Any
of the travel to China or London? Dr. Leonora Orantes: We're
[an autopsy is being
carried out on Beth and her skull is opened] Minnesota Medical
Examiner: Hell, this whole side is obliterated. Let's look
at the base. [they look at the base
of the brain and notice something strange about Beth's brain] Minnesota Medical
Examiner: Oh, my God! Assistant Medical
Examiner: Do you want me to um...take a sample? Minnesota Medical
Examiner: I want you to move away from the table. [the assistant medical
examiner moves away] Assistant Medical
Examiner: Should I call someone? Minnesota Medical
Examiner: Call everyone!
[Day 6 Cheevers
is briefing Erin as she is to investigate and contain cases of the
infection] Dr. Ellis Cheever: As
of last night they were five deaths and thirty two cases. Dr. Erin Mears:
There's a cluster in an elementary school. Dr. Ellis Cheever: Okay,
that's the kind of thing you're gonna have to be prepared for. It's
gonna be all over the news big time. What's your single overriding
communications objective? Dr. Erin Mears: We're
isolating the sick, we're quarantining those who we believe were
exposed. Dr. Ellis Cheever: Good.
As of this moment, you and I are tasked at the cell phone. If you need
resources, call me. If you get into a political dog fight, call me. If
you find yourself wide awake, staring at the walls at three a.m.
wondering why you took the job, call me.
[Mitch is in the
hospital under quarantine watch, he talks to his daughter on the phone
provided in quarantine] Jory Emhoff:
Dad? Mitch Emhoff: How
are you doing? Jory Emhoff: Are
you sick? Mitch Emhoff: No!
No. No. No. I'm good. Uh...this is all just, you know, precaution, you
know. Just making sure. Jory Emhoff: But
you were with them. You could still get it. Mitch Emhoff: No.
I...I won't. Um...they say this happens really really fast. And
uh...I'm fine. There's nothing wrong with me. There's nothing wrong
with me. We're okay. We're okay.
[continuing they're talk
through the quarantine separation on the phone] Jory Emhoff: And
Clarke? Mitch Emhoff: Yeah,
you know what? Um...I...I wasn't there. I went in the ambulance with
uh...with Beth.. And uh...I just didn't...I left him with uh...Carrie
Anne. Jory Emhoff: I...I
should have been there! I could have known! Mitch Emhoff: No!
No! No! Honey, no! No! It's good that you weren't there, honey. I'm
happy. If something had happened to you! I mean, I... Honey, you're
here now. You know, I'm happy about that. I'm happy about that. Jory Emhoff: When
are you coming home? Mitch Emhoff: Soon.
Very soon. It's uh...you know? Why don't you go, uh...uh to...to your
mom's? Jory Emhoff: No! Mitch Emhoff: Stay
with her. Jory Emhoff: No.
She doesn't need me. She's got Dan. I live here. You don't have
anybody. I'm not leaving you!
[meeting at the
Minnesota Department of Health] Minnesota Health #3:
We have forty seven cases and eight deaths as of five this afternoon.
It's a weekend, these numbers might be low. Minnesota Health #1:
People are staying at home for a couple of days, see if it can get any
better. Dr. Erin Mears: So,
at this point I think we have to believe this is respiratory. Maybe
fomites too. Minnesota Health #3: What's
that, fomites? Dr. Erin Mears: Uh...it
refers to transmission from surfaces. The average person touches their
face two or three thousand times a day. Minnesota Health #4:
Two or three thousand times a day? Dr. Erin Mears: Three
to five times every waking minute. In between, we're touching door
knobs, water fountains, elevator buttons and each other. Those things
become fomites. Minnesota Health #3: Is
this something we wanna release to the press? Respiratory and fomites? Minnesota Health #4: And
how's the public gonna react to that? Dr. Erin Mears: Hard
to say. Plastic shark in a movie will keep you from getting in the
ocean, but a warning on the side of a pack of cigarettes won't stop you
from buying... Minnesota Health #4: We're
gonna need to walk the government through this before we start to freak
everybody out. I mean, we can't even tell people right now what they
should be afraid of. We tried that with Swine Flu and all we did was
get healthy people scared. It's the biggest shopping weekend of the
Minnesota Health #3: I
think we need to consider closing schools down. Minnesota Health #4: And
who stays home with the kids? People that work on stores, government
workers, people that work in hospitals. When will we know what this is?
What causes it? What cures it? Things to keep people calm. Dr. Erin Mears: What
we need to determine is this; for every person who gets sick, how many
other people are they likely to to infect? So, for seasonal flu that's
usually about one. Smallpox on the other hand, it's over three. Now,
before we had vaccine, Polio spread at a rate between four and six.
Now, we call that number the R-not. R stands for the reproductive rate
of the virus. Minnesota Health #3: Any
ideas what that might be for this? Dr. Erin Mears: How
fast it multiplies depends on the variety of factors; the incubation
period, how long a person is contagious. Sometimes people can be
contagious without even having symptoms, you need to know that too. And
we need to know how big the population of people susceptible
the virus might be. Minnesota Health #4: So
far that appears to be everyone with hands, a mouth and a nose.
Dr. Erin Mears: Once
we know the R-not, we'll be able to handle on the scale of the epidemic. Minnesota Health #4: So,
it's an epidemic now. An epidemic of what? Dave: We
sent samples to the CDC. Dr. Erin Mears: In
seventy two hours, we'll know what it is, if we're lucky. Minnesota Health #4: Clearly,
we're not lucky.
[looking at the samples
of the virus taken from Beth's body] Dr. Ally Hextall:
I can see some structures on the surface that look like glycoproteins,
but there's nothing morphologically pathognomonic. Dr. David Eisenberg:
We tested all of her anti-bodies, I didn't see much pressure activity.
Her body had no idea what to do with it. It just kept amplifying. Dr. Ally Hextall: Send
it to Sussman in San Fransisco. If he doesn't know what it is, nobody
[as Sussman is leaving
the bio medical facility he is accosted by Allen asking him about the
virus] Alan Krumwiede: You've
got it in there, haven't you? Dr. Ian Sussman:
Not really. Look, get away from here Alan Krumwiede: Where
did it come from? Is it a genetically modified organism? Dr. Ian Sussman You're
not a doctor and you're not a writer! Alan Krumwiede: Yes,
I am a writer. Yes, I am! Dr. Ian Sussman Blogging
is not writing. It's graffiti with punctuation. Alan Krumwiede: I
am a journalist! And there's an informed discussion on the blogosphere,
that this is a biological weapon. Dr. Ian Sussman If
you wanna talk to me, call my office and make an appointment.
[Day 7 - Homeland
Security meet with Cheever and they believe the virus might be a
terrorist action] Dennis French:
If you were gonna plan it, can't think of a better time than Thanks
Giving. Dr. Ellis Cheever: Then
what? Dennis French: An
attack? Is there anyway someone could weaponize the Bird Flu? Is that
what we're looking at? Dr. Ellis Cheever: Someone
doesn't have to weaponize the Bird-Flu. The birds are doing that.
On air TV Reporter:[voice]
Government officials are reporting closing of Mondale Elementary School
in suburban Minneapolis. In response to the recent outbreak of a still
unknown disease that has so far taken the life of school nurse and
three students. Other schools and district two eighty one will remain
open, but parents have been notified to keep home any children with
symptoms. The Minnesota Department of Health is awaiting confirmation,
but sources say these new cases maybe connected to the sudden death of
a thirty four year old woman A-I-M-M-O executive and her six year old
son at this holiday weekend.
[Erin interviews the
workers at AIMMO that had interactions with Beth before she died] Dr. Erin Mears: Is
there anyone else who might have had contact with her? AIMM Employee #4:
This was everyone. AIMM Employee #2:
Aaron Barnes did. AIMM Employee #4: Barnes
worked on another floor. AIMM Employee #2: There
were documents she needed to sign. He picked her up from the airport. Dr. Erin Mears: He
picked her up from the airport? AIMM Employee #2: Yes.
Dr. Erin Mears: Where
[Erin is on the phone to
Barnes who's on a bus] Dr. Erin Mears: I
believe you may have contact with Beth Emhoff last week? Aaron Barnes:
Yeah, I picked her up from the airport. What's this about? [he starts to cough] Dr. Erin Mears: How
are you feeling today? Aaron Barnes: Pretty
cruddy to be honest. My head is pounding. I probably got some sort of
bug. Dr. Erin Mears: Where
are you right now? Aaron Barnes: On
the bus, heading to work. [Erin gets into a car] Dr. Erin Mears: I'd
like you to get off immediately. Aaron Barnes: Wait,
what? What's going on? Dr. Erin Mears: Where?
Where...where's the bus, Aaron? Aaron Barnes: Um...uh...Lake and
Lyndale. Can you tell me what's going on? Dr. Erin Mears: I
really need you to get off that bus. Listen, it's quite possible you've
in contact with an infectious disease and that you're highly
you understand? I want you to get off now. Aaron Barnes: Okay.
I'm getting off. Dr. Erin Mears: Stay
away from other people. Aaron Barnes: What
do I do now? Dr. Erin Mears: Don't
talk to anyone. Don't touch anyone. That's the most important thing.
We'll send somebody to meet the bus. Aaron Barnes: Okay. Dr. Erin Mears: I'm
on way to you now, Aaron. [as Aaron gets off the
bus he touches the rail on the bus and starts coughing]
[Erin is interviewing
Mitch about Beth] Mitch Emhoff: She
traveled a lot for...for work. Dr. Erin Mears: Did
her work involve contact with live stock in any way? Did you...did you
keep any pets at home? Mitch Emhoff: No.
No. Dr. Erin Mears: Did
she mention seeing anyone who was sick? Anyone on...on a plane? Mitch Emhoff: No. Dr. Erin Mears: She
went through customs in Chicago at eleven fifteen a.m. and then took a
flight to Minneapolis at six p.m. Any idea what she did in Chicago
during that layover? Did she have meetings? Is there a...any reason she
might have left the airport? Mitch Emhoff: Why?
I mean is uh...is there someone that's sick in Chicago? [Erin doesn't reply] Mitch Emhoff: Uh...before
we were married, my...my wife had a relationship with a man in Chicao
named John Neal. [Erin again doesn't
reply but just looks at Mitch] Mitch Emhoff: Is
John Neal sick? Did we get this from him? Dr. Erin Mears: We're
investigating all the...all the possibilities. Mitch Emhoff: No.
No. I think I have a right to know! Look at where I am here? Dr. Erin Mears: We... Mitch Emhoff: Look
at where I am here? Dr. Erin Mears: I
can't! Mitch Emhoff: No!
I'm just... Dr. Erin Mears: I
can't disclose that information. Mitch Emhoff: I'm
just trying to understand. Dr. Erin Mears: I'm
sorry. I know.
[looking at the virus
sample taken from Beth's body they have identified traces of
bat and pig in the virus code]
Dr. Ally Hextall: Somewhere
in the world the wrong pig met up with wrong bat. Dr. Ellis Cheever: You
ever seen anything like this before? Dr. Ally Hextall: No.
And it's still changing. It's figuring us out faster than we're
figuring it out. Dr. Ellis Cheever: It
doesn't have anything else to do. So we have novel virus with a
mortalilty rate in the low twenties. No treatment protocol and no
vaccine at this time. Dr. Ally Hextall: That
is correct. Dr. Ellis Cheever: From
here on out I want no one working on this except the BSL-Four. The last
thing we need is for this thing to walk out of a lab on the bottom of
[Day 8 - at a press
conference Cheever gives a brief on the outbreak cases of the virus
worldwide] Reporter #1:
Can you repeat the infected cities so far? Dr. Ellis Cheever: Again,
the infected cities are Minneapolis, Chicago, Los Angeles, Boston and
Salt Lake. We expect that list to grow at people return hom form the
holidays. Reporter #1: Dr.
Cheever, how many people are infected and how many have died?
Well, those numbers are changing as we speak. So any figure I give you
is likely to be low. We're still calculating the mortality rate at this
time. Reporter #2: Dr.
Cheever, are you concerned that the CDC faces a credibility issue here,
after the percieved overreaction to H1N1? Dr. Ellis Cheever: I'd
rather the new story be that we overreacted than many people lost their
lives because we didn't do enough. That's why we're here today. It's
also why the World Health Organization is sending an epidemiologist to
Hong Kong. It's hard to know what it is without knowing where it came
from. So our first job with these things is always to find ground zero.
To figure out how it jumped into the population to begin with. We do
know that a patient in Minnesota traveled to that part of the world.
[video conference with
the World Health Organization in Switzerland] Damian Leopold: We
believe that there are approximately eighty nine thousand cases at the
this point, and that we are heading toward two hundred sixty seven
thousand. And from there, using our model based on an R-not to,
here is where we expect to be in forty eight hours. [shows map of the world
with all the cities they expected to be effected by the virus] Damian Leopold: Dr.
Cheever, perhaps you can update us on the research. Dr. Ellis Cheever: As
of right now, no one has found a good way to grow the virus cells. Dr. Leonora Orantes: Why
is that? Dr. Ally Hextall: Because
it kills every cell we put it in. A pig, a chicken, everything. Until
we can grow it, and a great deal of it, we can't experiment with it.
And until then, we can't vaccinate against it. Chinese Health Official
#1: Have you found any treatment at all? Any anti-virus?
Anything? Dr. Ally Hextall: No.
[at Hong Kong tracking
Beth's movements] Dr. Leonora Orantes: Beth
Emhoff, used an ATM at a casino in Macao, City Bank released her
records. We had her using the machine at ten forty three, just up the
casino floor. I want to see the casino's security footage for
two hours on either side of that. [referring to the two
men arguing in the office] Dr. Leonora Orantes: Is
there a problem? Sun Feng:
They're from my village. They found a new cluster there. Dr. Leonora Orantes: Oh.
Is your family still there? Sun Feng: My
mother has symptoms. I'll get you the footage you require. Excuse me.
[Day 12 - the news
report on the virus, now called MEV-1] On air TV Reporter:[voice] The
Center for Disease and Control in the Unites States and the World
Health Organization in Switzerland, confirmed today that Dr. Ian
Sussman of San Fransisco has succeeded in growing the MEV-1 virus in a
laboratory setting. Officials at the CDC cautioned that the
breakthrough is only the first step toward developing a vaccine, which
is likely still months away from human trials. The WHO estimates the
number of people infected world wide to be over eight million.
Hedge Fund Man in Park:
This is where we need your expertise. The pharmaceutical stocks is
already through the roof. What's next? Where is the opportunity? Now,
you saw that Shinko bus thing, day one. That's why we wanted this
meeting. Alan Krumwiede: When
I turned on my computer this morning, I had over two million unique
visitors all looking for the truth. You think they want to see me
talking to some Hedge Fund guy? Hedge Fund Man in Park: Mr.
Krumwiede, we don't invent need here. We just analyze it, predict it.
You tell me what it cost to look into your crystal ball? Alan Krumwiede: You
familiar with Forsythia? Hedge Fund Man in Park: No,
I'm not. Alan Krumwiede: What
I'm about to tell you is back up by testimonials that will appear
shortly in the popular media. I'll be talking about it extensively in
the days ahead. Hedge Fund Man in Park: What
does forsythia do? Alan Krumwiede: It's